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Deltas are quite rare, they are formed only in the estuaries of such rivers as the Mississippi, the Danube, the Nile, the Niger, the Ganges, the Yellow River, the Rhine a number of others. In Russia only the Lena, the Volga and the Selenga have classic deltas.

Rise of level of Lake Baikal after the construction of Irkutsk hydroelectric station in 1959 resulted in major changes of the coastline, sand bars separating the "litters" of the lake have disappeared, many islands and shoals in the delta have been submerged. Thus, it is a unique natural site for scientists who study the lake Baikal ecosystem and the fundamental problems of sustainable development of the World Natural Heritage Site and solution of environmental problems.

The uniqueness of the Selenga River Delta.

The Selenga River is the largest tributary of Baikal lake. the Catchment area of the  Selenga River is 447,060 sq km and it is 50% of the total flow into Lake Baikal, the Selenga length (from headwaters of the Ider river in Mongolia) is 1024 km, including 409 km of the lower course - on the territory of Russia.

The Selenga River Delta was formed in the long process of interaction of the system "Lake Baikal - the Selenga river" and it is a unique accumulative form of relief with a number of specific characteristics. It is the only inside "freshwater" delta in the world. the Selenga river delta topside area is 550 sq km, including the delta front (including such shallow bays bordering the delta as Proval and Sor Cherkalov) it is about 1120 sq km, the age of the delta is. 25 million years, precipitation capacity is 8-9 km.

The Delta completes the removal the pollution export of natural and man-made substances from the territory of more than half a million square kilometers, belonging to Russia and Mongolia. It is a natural biofilter of water purification of the Selenga river and an indicator of the ecosystem of Lake Baikal.

The unique wetland ecosystem included in the list of the Ramsar Convention, is the habitat of the Red fish fauna of Lake Baikal fish (sturgeon, Arctic cisco, grayling, carp) and migratory birds of North Asia.

The uniqueness of the natural environment is complemented by the presence of the areas of permafrost, gas hydrate, yields flammable gases, oil and thermal waters.

In 1862 there was a 10-point Tsagan earthquake, resulted in the formation of the Proval Bay. The newest microrecord of natural and anthropogenic phenomena Baikal region is fixed in its dregginess.

These studies provide a basis for the development of a new scientific direction - the doctrine of freshwater deltas.

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