The Baikal Institute of Nature Management (BINM) / From the history
The Baikal Institute of rational nature management SB RAS was established on March 28, 1991 at the initiative of the academician V.A. Koptyug on the basis of the Baikal Department of nature management problems.
In 1997, during the reorganization of academic institutions, the chemistry department of Buryat institute of natural sciences and Chita institute of natural resources SB RAS were annexed to Baikal institute of rational nature management SB RAS with formation of the Baikal joint institute of nature management SB RAS. In 2001, this institute was divided into the Baikal institute of nature management SB RAS and the Institute of natural resources, ecology and cryology SB RAS in Chita.
In December 13, 2011 type and name of the Institute changed from the Institution of the Russian Academy of sciences, Baikal institute of nature management of the Siberian branch of the Russian Academy of sciences to Federal state budgetary establishment, Baikal institute of nature management of the Siberian branch of the Russian Academy of sciences.
Scientific and organizational activity of BINM SB RAS is implemented according to the Charter, which was approved by the Resolution of the Presidium RAS No. 504.SB from December 14, 2011.
The institute has the license for the right to conduct educational activity, which has been issued by Federal Service for Supervision in the Sphere of Science and Education. This license allows the Institute conduct the following educational programs, programs of vocational education (postgraduate study): 02.00.01 Inorganic chemistry, 02.00.04 Physical chemistry, 02.00.06 High-molecular compounds, 03.02.08 Ecology, 05.16.02 Metallurgy of ferrous, non-ferrous and rare metals, 05.17.01 Technology of inorganic substances, 08.00.05 Economics and management of a national economy (in the fields of activity including: regional economy; demography and economy of the population; nature management economy), 25.00.24 Economics, social, political and recreational geography, 25.00.36 Geoecology; with the normative study period of 3 years on full-time study on the basis of higher education. In addition, the Institute has the license to carry out geodetic and cartographical works of the federal purposes, which was provided by the Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation and the Federal service for state registration, cadastre and cartography. The results of these works have nation-wide and intersectoral value.
According to the order of Federal Service for Supervision in the Sphere of Science and Education No. 685 from July 19, 2013, BINM SB RAS passed the state accreditation for six years on the educational programs of postgraduate vocational education (02.00.01 Inorganic chemistry, 02.00.04 Physical chemistry, 02.00.06 High-molecular compounds, 08.00.05 Economics and management of a national economy (in the fields of activity including: regional economy; demography and economy of the population; nature management economy).
In 2010, the joint dissertation council of BINM SB RAS and Buryat State University was established. It carries out activities for the following specialties: 25.00.24 – economic, social, political and recreational geography and 25.00.36 – geoecology.
The environmental and analytical testing laboratory at the Institute provides determination of physical and chemical quality indicators of a natural, underground and surface water, circulating and sewage water, and certified in system of GOST R (certificate No. 45-13, validity period from 30.05.2013 to 30.05.2016).
MAIN SCIENTIFIC DIRECTIONS
The institute carries out scientific researches within the Program of basic researches of the state academies of sciences for 2013-2020 in the following main directions of scientific activity:
- Nature management issues: interaction between natural and socio-economic systems.
- Chemical elements and compounds in natural and artificial environments.
- Development of new materials and resource saving, eco-safety technologies; chemical aspects of rational nature management.
Baikal institute of nature management includes 10 laboratories and the year-round international eco-educational center "Istomino" (http://binm.ru/istomino/), which is provided with highly qualified personnel work. In the Institute works 140 employees, among them 1 Corresponding-member RAS, 19 Doctors of science, 74 Candidates of science, and 6 Professors.
From 1991 to 2013, the Institute was headed by Arnold K. Tulokhonov, the Corresponding-member RAS, the Doctor of geographical sciences, the expert in the field of physical and economic geography, and the follower of ideas of the academician V.A. Koptyug on realization of models of a sustainable development in the Baikal nature territory. In 2013, Professor Garmaev Endon Zh, the Doctor of geographical sciences, the expert in the geoecology and the use and protection of water resources, became an acting director of BINM, (the Resolution of SB RAS No.138 from April 11, 2013), due to the appointment of A.K. Tulokhonov to the authorized member of Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation as a representative of the Government of the Republic of Buryatia.
The Institute has 3 scientific schools:
- Nature management in the conditions of environmental constraints. Founder and head – Tulokhonov A.K., the Corresponding-member RAS.
- Synthesis of heterocyclic, nitrogen-containing heat-resistant polymers. Head – Professor Mognonov D. M., the Doctor of chemical sciences (founder of the school - academician Korshak V. V.)
- Chemistry and physics of oxide compounds. Head – Professor Bazarova Zh.G. (founder of the school - Mokhosoyev M. V., the Corresponding-member AS of USSR).
BINM SB RAS successfully accomplishes tasks of the Russian Government on Lake Baikal’s ecosystem conservation and rational use of natural resources of its basin in accordance to the federal law of the Russian Federation "About protection of Lake Baikal". The Institute's associates actively participate in Russian and international programs and projects, thereby, they draw attention of world scientific community to problems of a sustainable development of the Baikal region, as a world model territory. The Institute actively cooperates with the Government and the People's Khural of the Republic of Buryatia in the finding a solution of actual and perspective socio-economic and nature protection problems, especially focuses on the main points of development of the region. The Institute offers the mechanisms of preservation of demographic potential of rural territories and small villages, provision of food safety of the country, utilization of ammunition's depot, also it gives prove of importance of the gas-main for the solution of social and economic problems of the Baikal region and Mongolia, and construction of the water-main "Baikal-China".
The BINM SB RAS was the organizer of such large international and All-Russian scientific events, as: "Baikal as the Site of world natural heritage" (1998), "Modern problems of chemistry of high-molecular compounds: highly effective and ecologically safe processes of synthesis of natural and synthetic polymers and materials on their basis" (2002), "Scientific bases of preservation of catchment basins: the international approaches to management of natural resources" (2004), "A sustainable development of tourism: directions, tendencies, technologies", "Polymers in the XXI century" (2005), "Ecological and geographical problems of development of transboundary regions", "Peculiarities of economic activity on the Baikal nature territory" (2007), "Priorities and distinctive features of development in the Baikal region" (this conference was devoted to the International year of a planet Earth and to the 85th anniversary of formation of the Republic of Buryatia (2008, 2011)), "Living lakes - 10 years of partnership on Baikal: chances and challenges for sustainable future of the humanity and the Lake", "A sustainable development of tourism: strategic initiatives and partnership" (2009), "Deltas of Eurasia: origin, evolution, ecology and economic development" (2010), "Problems of the Russian population", "Selenga – river without borders", "The Baikal materials science forum" (2012), "Environment and a sustainable development on the Mongolian plateau and surrounding regions" (2013). The international eco-educational center "Istomino" of the BINM SB RAS offers summer schools for gifted children on ecological, economic, physical and mathematical, and chemical programs, educational and work practice for students, courses of retraining in nature protection's program for specialists. Since 1999, ones in two years, the directorate and the council of scientific youth of the BINM SB RAS organize school seminar "Problem of a sustainable development of the region" for young scientists of Russia.
Many researches and elaborations of the Institute represent results of practical integration with the academic structures of the Ural and Far East branches of RAS, with the Ukraine NAS, with Novosibirsk and Irkutsk scientific centers, with Moscow and Siberian federal universities. These results presented in the form of joint monographs, geographical atlases, databases, meetings, etc. 3 departments and a number of new specialties are established at the Buryat state university on the basis of the BINM. The Institute's scientists give the lectures at the East Siberian state university of technology and management and in the Buryat state agricultural academy.
The authority of the Institute and high professional level of its specialists allow scientists to give an environmental, economic and technological opinion of expertise to all large objects and plans of social and economic development of the Baikal region's territories, connected with use of natural resources.
Collaborators of the Institute published more than 100 monographs, about 900 articles in the referred domestic and foreign scientific issues. The Institute's workers obtain 78 patents of the Russian Federation.
During activity of the Institute 25 persons defended doctoral dissertations. K.Nikiforov, S. Pomishin, A.Tulokhonov, Zh.Bazarova, D. Mognonov obtained the titles "The honored worker of science of the Russian Federation; P. Khanduyev obtained the title "The honored economist of the Russian Federation"; 17 people obtained honorary titles of the Republic of Buryatia. 9 people received the state scientific grants and scholarships for young candidates of science.
The international cooperation with scientists from Germany, Japan, England, Sweden, Finland, Italy, China, Mongolia, Korea takes the special place in the scientific activity of the Institute. The majority of international projects have a long-term scientific agreement, that finished by joint publications in foreign editions. Cooperation of the European community on technical assistance in the field of protection of the Baikal region is one of the recent international projects. From eight projects, the Institute participated in the following projects "Assistance to Ecological Awareness of the Population of the Baikal Region", "Increase of Efficiency of Public Administration in the field of Environmental Protection" and "Rational Use of Natural Resources of the Baikal Region". The eventual result of these projects became the installation of the new equipment to many scientific and manufacturing enterprises of the Baikal region, and opportunity of specialists of all degrees to learn modern eco-safe technologies of forest, mining, and agrarian manufacturing in the European countries. Many project points were issued in the methodical grants and monographs.
Global Environmental Facility and UN Development Program "Biodiversity conservation in Baikal region" and "Integrated Natural Resource Management in the Baikal Basin Transboundary ecosystem" are among the Institute's largest achievements. Dozens of scientific, educational, nature protection and public organizations of the Republic of Buryatia, Irkutsk region and Chita region participated in these projects. As a result of this, ecological activity of local population increased significantly, the considerable sums of funds for realization protection events of nature sanctuaries, and strengthening of school circles and the museums were allocated, dozens of educational seminars were held, ecological literature for rural libraries was acquired. Strategy of biodiversity conservation of the Baikal region was developed, new especially protected natural territories, programs of ecological tourism development were offered. These programs were the basis of establishment of special economic zones of recreational type.
Joint projects were realized in cooperation with Korea Committee on water resources and the academic institutes of the Mongolian Academy of sciences, in the area of UNEP. For the first time in Russia, within the TASIS-Tempus project, joined the BOKU Vienna university (Austria) and the University of Udine (Italy), the system of organic agriculture was generalized and elaborated on the base of using nomadic animal husbandry of the Great steppe peoples. According to the UNEP program, the Institute's scientists conducted researches for change of steppe agricultural landscapes and processes of desertification of cryoarid territories of Northern Asia. Since 2006, regular Russian-Chinese complex expeditions are carried out on research of natural resources and ecosystems along the 50th width and the 100th meridian of the northern hemisphere, including Tibet, the Mongolian plateau, Baikal, valleys of the rivers Lena and Amur. In cooperation with the Chinese scientists, the Institute's collaborators pursued researches of deltas of the Selenga, Huang He and Yangtze Rivers.
Besides unique scientific results, the big contribution to development of the international cooperation was made by expedition of deep-water submersibles “Miry” on Baikal in 2008-2010, within this event, scientific conferences, exhibitions, an exchange of experience with foreign colleagues took place. Data on a geological structure of a lake hollow, bottom contour and origin of the lake, samples of new species of living organisms and mechanisms of its behavior are obtained. Within the project, special significance was attached to drawing attention of the country leaders, the world and Russian community to problems of studying and conservation of ecosystem of the Lake Baikal, achievements of the Russian science.
In 2013 the international Swiss-Russian expedition "Ultralight trikes: Leman - Baikal" started, it will continue until 2015. The first stage of expedition started on the bank of Lake Geneva on May 17, 2013. Researches on the Lake Baikal began on June 27 on the basis of IEEC "Istomino" BINM SB RAS. Ultralight trikes, manufactured by Air Creation (Aubenas, France), are used at the solution of scientific and applied tasks as an intermediate link between field and route researches and data of remote sensing. At considerable high cost and lack of light planes, supervision from ultralight trikes provides operational information about condition of environment, and opportunity of use of large-scale photography and analytical devices for environmental monitoring.
At the Institute, particular significance to professional development of young research associates by foreign training and business trips. The most frequent are from DAAD, INTAS, Matsumae, Fulbright, Mac-Arthur, Royal society of Great Britain Funds to the leading centers and universities of Germany, the Netherlands, Japan, Ireland, the USA, Korea, Austria, and Switzerland.
With support of the Siberian branch of the Russian Academy of sciences, domestic and international grants, the Institute is provided with the modern analytical equipment, allowing implementing the high-precision analysis of a chemical composition of natural and artificial environments, to carry out monitoring of ecosystems. At the Institute, the small innovative enterprise on realization of development of chemical divisions and new materials was created.
In 1997, the BINM scientific library has been opened to provide information support of basic and applied researches of the Institute. It is a part of the Centralized library system of the Siberian branch of the Russian Academy of sciences. For years of its existence, the library collected the unique fund of literature on environmental management, ecological, social and economic problems of the Baikal region, literature on environmental protection, geography, cartography, and economic sciences.
The Buryat regional branches of the Russian geographical and Russian chemical societies successfully function at the Institute. The Institute is one of the active participants of Fund of assistance to Lake Baikal conservation.
The Institute is one of the few academic structures that systemically realizes the program of ecological education of the Baikal region's population, and actively cooperates with the public ecological organizations. Collaborates of the Institute created the Ekos school, and the Small academy of sciences, that works over 30 years. The Institute is the co-founder of the popular scientific magazine "World of Baikal". The Institute published the encyclopedic reference book "Baikal: the nature and people". The encyclopedic reference-book "Buryatia. Volume № 1 "Nature. Society. Economy" is going to be published.
The largest special economic zone of tourist and recreational type "Baikal harbor" is realized with active participation of Institute.
Recently the Baikal institute of nature management of the Siberian branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences celebrated its 20-th anniversary.
According to the decision of the Commission on assessment of activity's efficiency of the scientific organizations RAS for 2006-2010, Baikal institute of nature management SB RAS awarded the first category – the scientific organizations as leaders (the Resolution of the Russian Academy of sciences No. 69 from March 27, 2012).
Today Baikal institute of nature management is one of the few academic institutes that systematically integrate knowledge of separate sciences for creation a model of sustainable development of the Baikal region and ways of its realization.